members whose power, or status behaviour complements their own. 46 In a despotic system, one member is considered dominant while all other members of the living group are equally submissive. 49 For other animals, the time spent in the group serves as a determinant of dominance status. Polistes exclamans also exhibits this type of hierarchy.
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"Gerontocracy in the social wasp, Polistes exclamans ". New York: Springer, 2012. They reasoned that if a primer pheromones were on the bedding then the sub-dominant's reproductive function should continue to be suppressed. 30 This is in stark opposition to the original suggestion stating that being subdominant was more stressful than being dominant within a hierarchy. The dominant individuals in these groups fill themselves up first and fill up more quickly, so they spend less time foraging, which reduces the risk of predation. The first suggests that higher ranking individuals exert more energy and thus need higher levels of glucocorticoids to more readily mobilize glycogen stores for energy use. Individuals will often weigh the cost of the resource against factors including their age, intelligence, experience, and physical fitness, which can determine the costs to gaining rank. 1, contents, dominance edit, when to seek high rank edit, given the benefits and costs of possessing a high rank within a hierarchal group, there are certain characteristics of individuals, groups, and environments that determine whether an individual will benefit from a high rank.